Navigating the Legal Labyrinth of MSME Payments in the Wake of the Finance Bill 2023

In the dynamics of a growing economy, Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), play an extraordinarily vital role in fueling innovation, creating employment opportunities, and contributing to the nation’s GDP. However, one predominant issue that has posed numerous challenges to this sector is the problem of delayed payments to MSME vendors. Inconsistent payment cycles can yield crippling effects on these enterprises, hampering their growth and potentially pushing them into a debt trap.

The significance of timely payments to these businesses can’t be overstated. Delayed payments not only disrupt cash flows but also affect the operational sustainability of MSMEs, pushing them into a vicious cycle of borrowing and debt. Given these circumstances, it becomes crucial to understand the nuances of the existing legal framework aimed at regulating and mitigating these payment delays.

Legal Framework under the MSMED Act

The Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 (MSMED Act), serves as the cornerstone for securing the interests of these enterprises. Understanding the following sections of the Act is crucial to gain perspective on the legal remedies bestowed upon these small enterprises:

Section 15 outlines the terms of payments to be made to MSME vendors, stipulating that the period for payment of an invoice, agreed upon in writing, shall not exceed forty-five days from the day of acceptance or the day of deemed acceptance (Read more about our services). In case of no written agreement, payment has to be made within 15 days.

Section 16, on the other hand, holds the key to the consequences of delayed payments. It specifies that in case of a delay beyond the stipulated period, as prescribed in Section 15, the buyer shall be liable to pay compound interest (at three times the Reserve Bank’s notified rate) to the supplier from the appointed day.

The “Appointed day” is of significant importance here—it means the day following immediately after the expiry of the period of fifteen days from the day of acceptance or the day of deemed acceptance.

As we move forward into this examination of the timely payments to MSMEs, we will further delve into the nuances of Sections 23 and 24 of the MSMED Act, the filing requirements under the Companies Act, 2013, and how the principal vs. interest debate on delayed payments comes into play.

MSME Payments and the Companies Act, 2013

In tandem with the provisions of the MSMED Act, the Companies Act of 2013 enforces additional transparency and accountability on companies transacting with MSMEs. As per the Act, it’s mandatory for a company to file e-form MSME-1 with the Registrar of Companies every six months, reporting details of payments that exceed the 45-day period. Not only does this extend legal muscles to the MSMEs for claiming their dues, but it also requires companies to give additional disclosures in their financial statements, pertaining to such transactions.

This cross legislation enforcement, as found between the MSMED Act and the Companies Act, underscores the sensitivity and significance vested in the payments to MSMEs. It is a clear signal to the corporate players that the financial health of MSME vendors holds substantial weight in the fabric of the nation’s economy.

To ensure compliance with these legislative requirements, enterprises often rely on expert guidance from financial consultants and chartered accountants (Chartered accountants in Gurgaon) who are equipped to provide the necessary fiscal and compliance advice.

The Principal vs. Interest Debate on Delayed MSME Payments

A pivotal aspect of delayed payments is the debate over whether the accumulated sum consists of the principal amount or penal interest. Sections 15 to 24 of the MSMED Act make it incumbent upon the buyer to pay interest on delayed payments. However, the penal nature of such interest denotes that tax deduction claims, typically available under regular circumstances, are disallowed under Section 37 of the Income Tax Act of 1961. This emphasizes the principal amount’s priority over the interest in financial transactions with the MSMEs.

As each section under the MSMED Act is dissected, it becomes clear that while the Act does not directly require the buyer to settle the principal payment, it does impose a punitive interest structure for delays. The takeaway for businesses is that interest paid on delayed payments to MSMEs is not just a financial burden but also a non-deductible expense, further accentuating the need for prompt payment practices.

Amendments Proposed by the Finance Bill, 2023

In a bid to foster a more conducive business environment for MSMEs and ensure quicker release of their payments, the Finance Bill of 2023 has proposed pivotal amendments that are set to change the landscape of MSME vendor transactions. These amendments seek to include payments to micro and small enterprises within the ambit of Section 43B of the Income Tax Act, which dictates the allowance of deductions based on the actual payments made.

Inclusion of Section 43B and Its Impact on Tax Deductions

According to the modifications detailed in the Bill, it is proposed to introduce a new clause (h) in Section 43B of the Income Tax Act. The pivotal change here is that any amount due to a micro or small enterprise beyond the time limit specified in Section 15 of the MSMED Act will only be permitted as a deduction upon actual payment.

This amendment holds significant weight as it deviates from the usual accrual-based accounting, whereby expenses are recognized when incurred, not necessarily when paid. Under this amendment, until the actual payment is made to the MSME, no deduction could be claimed. It is worth noting that the proviso traditionally allowing deductions upon accrued but unpaid expenses, will explicitly not apply to payments to MSMEs, thereby stressing the importance of making actual payments on time.

Potential Outcomes and Prep for Implementation

As we eye an enactment date of April 1, 2024, companies must gear up to adjust to the implications of these legislative changes, ensuring their accounting and payment systems are aligned with the new standards. Businesses will need to reassess their cash flows and consider any necessary changes to their financial practices to maintain compliance and avoid financial penalties.

The proposed amendment by the Finance Bill of 2023 emphasizes the philosophy that the growth and stability of MSMEs are paramount to the economy’s health, and any disruptions in their financial lifelines must be mitigated. With this provision, it becomes a tax planning imperative for companies to not only recognize their payment obligations but also honor them within the statutory time frame.

Best Practices for Companies in Managing Payment Obligations to MSMEs

As the enactment of the Finance Bill 2023 approaches, companies must not only prepare for the upcoming changes but also establish robust practices to manage their payment obligations effectively. Considering the impact of these legislative modifications, here are some best practices that businesses can adopt:

  1. Strengthen Cash Flow Management: Undertake a thorough review of the cash flow processes to ensure funds are available to clear MSME dues within the stipulated time frame.
  2. Update Accounting Systems: Adapt the existing accounting systems to accommodate the new requirement of recognizing deductions only upon actual payment, rather than on an accrual basis.
  3. Vendor Management: Maintain transparent communication with MSME vendors about payment processes and potential delays. Investing in vendor relationship management can preempt disputes and build trust.
  4. Compliance Checks: Regular reviews of compliance with the MSMED Act’s payment provisions should be an integral part of the business’s operational audits.
  5. Invest in Technology: Leverage financial technologies that can predict upcoming payment cycles and dues, providing a proactive approach to managing liabilities.
  6. Legal Counsel and Financial Consultation: Collaborate with legal advisors and chartered accountants to understand the nuances of the legal framework and ensure business practices are aligned with the legislative expectations.


The obligation towards timely payments to MSME vendors is not just a legal mandate but a business ethic that companies should embrace. As the provisions of the Finance Bill 2023 get woven into the financial fabric of businesses, the prominence of this ethical practice will only increase. The amendments put forth by the Bill serve as a reassuring beacon for MSMEs, promising them a more secure financial environment and anchoring their role in the economy.

By adhering to the discussed best practices, companies can fortify their payment processes and avoid penalties, consequently fostering a mutually beneficial relationship with their MSME partners. It is not merely about following a legal dictum but about nurturing a business ecosystem that thrives on fairness, respect, and economic stability.

As we round off this comprehensive discussion on delayed payments to MSME vendors, it becomes clear that a synchrony between the MSMED Act and the Company’s Act, reinforced now by the amendments proposed in the Finance Bill 2023, aims to create a more equitable and prompt payment culture in the business world. By prioritizing and ensuring the financial sustenance of MSMEs, we make strides toward a more resilient and flourishing economy.


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